Robert M. Havey, MS

Robert Havey

Contact Information


Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation

Loyola University Chicago

2160 S. First Avenue Maywood, IL 60153


Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital

5000 S. Fifth Avenue

P.O. Box 5000 (151)

Hines, IL 60141


Phone: 708-202-3781

Fax: 708-202-7938





Research and Professional Activities








Selected Publications



  1. Goodsitt JE, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Voronov LI, Patwardhan AG. Interpolation of three dimensional kinematics with dual-quaternions. J Biomech. 2017 Jan 25;51:105-110.

  2. Switaj PJ, Fuchs D, Alshouli M, Patwardhan AG, Voronov LI, Muriuki M, Havey RM, Kadakia AR. A biomechanical comparison study of a modern fibular nail and distal fibular locking plate in AO/OTA 44C2 ankle fractures. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016 Sep 15;11(1):100.

  3. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX(®) posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Aug 23;9:285-90.

  4. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Patwardhan AG. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Jul 13;9:223-30.

  5. Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paul GA, Lauryssen C, Coric D, Dimmig T, Musante D. Are Collapsed Cervical Discs Amenable to Total Disc Arthroplasty?: Analysis of Prospective Clinical Data with 2-year Follow-up. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2016 Jul 18 [Epub ahead of print]

  6. Muriuki MG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Zindrick MR, Lorenz MA, Lomasney L, Patwardhan AG. Effects of motion segment level, Pfirrmann intervertebral disc degeneration grade and gender on lumbar spine kinematics, J Orthop Res. 2016 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  7. Smith ZA, Khayatzadeh S, Bakhsheshian J, Harvey M, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Patwardhan AG. Dimensions of the Cervical Neural Foramen in Conditions of Spinal Deformity: An ex vivo Biomechanical Investigation Using Specimen-Specific CT Imaging. Eur Spine J. 2016 Jul;25(7):2155-65.

  8. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG. Stability of the Scoliotic Spine: Effect of Scoliosis Braces. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print].

  9. Patwardhan AG, Khayatzadeh S, Nguyen NL, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Carandang G, Smith ZA, Sears W, Lomasney LM, Ghanayem AJ. Is Cervical Sagittal Imbalance a Risk Factor for Adjacent Segment Pathomechanics After Multilevel Fusion? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Nov 30.

  10. Havey RM, Goodsitt J, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki M, Potluri T, Voronov LI, Lomasney LM, Patwardhan AG. Three-Dimensional CT Based Specimen-Specific Kinematic Model for Ex Vivo Assessment of Lumbar Neuroforaminal Space. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jul 15:40(14); E814-22.

  11. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki MG, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Nguyen NL, Ghanayem AJ, Schuit D, Patel AA, Smith ZA, Sears W. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance - A Novel Laboratory Model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jun 1:40(11); 783-92.

  12. Baluch DA, Patel AA, Lullo B, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Nguyen NL, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Physiologic Loads on Cortical and Traditional Pedicle Screw Fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Aug 4. 39(22):E1297-E1302.

  13. Brody M, Patel A, Ghanayem A, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, MD, Vastardis G, Potluri T, Patwardhan A. The Effect of Posterior Decompressive Procedures on Segmental Range of Motion Following Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Sep 1;39(19):1558-63.

  14. Fakurnejad S, Scheer J, Patwardhan A, Havey R, Voronov L, Smith Z. The Biomechanics of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: Methods of Induction and Treatments. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2014 Jun 25. pii: S0967-5868(14)00249-5.

  15. Schiff A, Havey R, Carandang G, Wickman A, Angelico J, Patwardhan A, Pinzur M. Quantification of Shear Stresses Within a Transtibial Prosthetic Socket. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 May 21;35(8):779-782.

  16. Balaram AK, Ghanayem AJ, O'Leary PT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device at the Index Level or Adjacent to Plated Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Jun 1;39(13):E763-9.

  17. Smith Z, Vastardis G, Carandang G, Havey R, Hannon S, Dahdaleh N, Voronov L, Fessler R, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Effects of a Unilateral Approach to Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression. PlosOne. 2014 Mar 21;9(3):e92611.

  18. Voronov L, Vastardis G, Zelenakova J, Carandang G, Havey R, Waldorff E, Zindrick M, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device. International Journal of Spine Surgery. Volume 8, 2014.

  19. Fry R, Alamin T, Voronov L, Fielding L, Ghanayem A, Parikh A, Carandang G, Mcintosh B, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Compressive Preload Reduces Segmental Flexion Instability After Progressive Destabilization of the Lumbar Spine. Spine. 2014 39(2):E74-E81.

  20. Fielding L, Alamin T, Voronov L, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Parametric and cadaveric models of lumbar flexion instability and flexion restricting dynamic stabilization system. European Spine Journal, Epub 2013.

  21. Gudavalli MR, Potluri T, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, Cox J, Rowell R, Kruse R, Joachim G, Patwardhan A, Henderson C, Goertz C. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013.

  22. Wojewnik B, Ghanayem A, Tsitsopoulos P, Voronov L, Potluri T, Havey R, Zelenakova J, Patel A, Carandang G, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device in the Setting of Progressive Flexion-Distraction Injury of the Cervical Spine. Eur Spine J. 2012 Aug 1.

  23. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Wharton ND, Tsitsopoulos PP, Newman P, Carandang G, Voronov LI. Asymmetric Motion Distribution Between Components of a Mobile-Core Lumbar Disc Prosthesis: An Explanation of Unequal Wear Distribution in Explanted CHARITÉ Polyethylene Cores. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 2; 94(9):846-54.

  24. Tsitsopoulos PP, Wojewnik B, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Renner SM, Zelenakova J, McIntosh B, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Prosthesis Endplate Lordosis Angles on L5-S1 Kinematics After Disc Arthroplasty. Eur Spine J. 2012 Jun; 21 Suppl 5:585-91. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

  25. Tsitsopoulos PP, Serhan H, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Would an Anatomically Shaped Lumbar Interbody Cage Provide Better Stability? An In Vitro Cadaveric Biomechanical Evaluation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2012 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]

  26. Robertson PA, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical Investigation of a Novel Integrated Device for Intra-Articular Stabilization of the C1-C2 (Atlantoaxial) Joint. Spine J. 2012 Feb;12(2):136-42. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

  27. Havey RM, Voronov LI, Tsitsopoulos PP, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Lorenz MA, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Relaxation Response of Lumbar Segments Undergoing Disc Space Distraction: Implications to the Stability of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Implants. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print].

  28. Renner SM, Tsitsopoulos PP, Dimitriadis AT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, McIntosh B, Carson C, Ty D, Ringelstein JG, Patwardhan AG. Restoration of spinal alignment and disk mechanics following polyetheretherketone wafer kyphoplasty with StaXx FX. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug;32(7):1295-300.

  29. Martin S, Ghanayem A, Tzermiadianos M, Voronov L, Havey R, Renner S, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Cervical Total Disc Replacement Adjacent to a Two-Level, Straight vs. Lordotic Fusion. Spine 2011 Aug 1;36(17):1359-66.

  30. Lee M, Dumonski M, Phillips F, Voronov L, Renner S, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Disc Replacement adjacent to Cervical Fusion: A Biomechanical Comparison of Hybrid Construct vs. Two-Level Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print]

  31. Gocke SP, Rottier FJ, Havey RM, Renner SM, Patwardhan AG, Carandang G. Quantitative Analysis of the Long- and Short-arm Crescentic Shelf Bunionectomy Osteotomies in Fresh Cadaveric Matched Pair Specimens. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011 Mar-Apr;50(2):158-64.

  32. Paxinos O, Tsitsopoulos PP, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Lorenz MA, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Evaluation of pullout strength and failure mechanism of posterior instrumentation in normal and osteopenic thoracic vertebrae. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Oct;13(4):469-76.

  33. Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Renner SM, Reo ML, Carandang G, Ritter-Lang K, Havey RM. Primary and coupled motions after cervical total disc replacement using a compressible six-degree-of-freedom prosthesis. Eur Spine J. 2010 Sep 24.

  34. Gaffey JL, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov ML, Havey RM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Increasing Implant Height on Lumbar Spine Kinematics and Foraminal Size Using the ProDisc-L Prosthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 35(19):1777-82.

  35. Voronov ML, Pinzur MS, Hoffman HH, Havey RM, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Static measure of foot loading. Foot Ankle Spec. 2009 Dec;2(6):267-70.

  36. Nassos JT, Ghanayem AJ, Sasso RC, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Rinella AS, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of segmental occipitoatlantoaxial stabilization techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Dec 1;34(25):2740-4.

  37. Voronov M, Pinzur M, Hoffman H, Havey R, Carandang G, Patwardhan A. Static Measure of Foot Loading. Foot Ankle Spec, October 6, 2009. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Dooris A, Patwardhan AG. Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Oct 15;34(22):E794-9.

  38. Voronov L, Havey R, Rosler D, Sjovold S, Rogers S, Carandang G, Ochoa J, Yuan H, Webb S, Patwardhan AG. L5-S1 Segmental Kinematics after Facet Arthroplasty. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 June 3(2):50-8. Voronov L, Havey R, Sjovold S, Funk M, Carandang G, Zindrick D, Rosler D, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Total Facet Replacement (TFAS-TL™) with Total Disc Replacement. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 September 3(3):85–90.

  39. Paxinos O, Ghanayem AJ, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Hadjipavlou A, Patwardhan AG. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a locked plate and wedged graft effectively stabilizes flexion-distraction stage-3 injury in the lower cervical spine: a biomechanical study. Spine. 2009 Jan 1;34(1):E9-15.

  40. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Renner SM, Rosler DM, Ochoa JA, Patwardhan AG. Effect of the Total Facet Arthroplasty System after complete laminectomy-facetectomy on the biomechanics of implanted and adjacent segments. Spine J. 2009 Jan;9(1):96-102.

  41. Tzermiadianos MN, Mekhail A, Voronov LI, Zook J, Havey RM, Renner SM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Enhancing the stability of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a biomechanical comparison of anterior plate versus posterior transpedicular instrumentation. Spine. 2008 Jan 15;33(2):E38-43.

  42. Snyder J, Tzermiadianos M, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Rinella A, Dooris A, Carandang G, Renner S, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Uncovertebral Joint Excision on the Motion Response of the Cervical Spine after Total Disc Replacement",Spine 2007, ec 15;32(26):2965-9.

  43. Phillips FM, Voronov LI, Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilizing device (DIAM) after facetectomy and discectomy. Spine J. 2006 Nov-Dec;6(6):714-22.

  44. Renner SM, Natarajan RN, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Guo BY, Andersson GB, An HS. Novel model to analyze the effect of a large compressive follower pre-load on range of motions in a lumbar spine. J Biomech. 2006 Jul 13.

  45. Oakey JW, Stover MD, Summers HD, Sartori M, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Does screw configuration affect subtrochanteric fracture after femoral neck fixation? Clin Orthop Rel Res 2006;443:302-6.

  46. O’Leary P, Lorenz M, Nicolakis M, Voronov L, Zindrick M, Ghanayem A, Havey R, Carandang G, Sartori M, Gaitanis I, Fronczak S, Patwardhan A. Response of Charité Total Disc Replacement under Physiologic Loads: Prosthesis Component Motion Patterns. Spine J 2005 Nov-Dec;5(6):590-9. Winner 2005 Outstanding Paper Award - North American Spine Society.

  47. King D, Chase J, Havey RM, Voronov L, Sartori M, McEwen HA, Beamer WG, Patwardhan AG. Effects of Growth Hormone Transgene Expression on Vertebrae in a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Spine 2005;30:1491-1495.

  48. Noonan T, Paxinos O, Pinzur MS, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis with a Retrograde Intramedullary Nail: A Biomechanical Analysis of the Effect of Nail Length. Foot and Ankle International 2005; 26 (4):304-308.

  49. Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Magovern B, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Zindrick MR, Hadjipavlou AG, Patwardhan AG. Restoring geometric and loading alignment of the thoracic spine with a vertebral compression fracture: effects of balloon (bone tamp) inflation and spinal extension. Spine J 2005;5(1):45-54.

  50. Dooris A, Voronov L, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. The Effect of Fixed Center of Rotation Disc Implantation on Motion Segment Load Sharing: A Pilot Study. Roundtables in Spine Surgery. Spine Biomechanics, 2005; 1(1):31-37.

  51. Phillips FM, Cunningham B, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Supplemental Translaminar Facet Screw Fixation on the Stability of Stand-Alone ALIF Cages Under Physiologic Loads. Spine, 2004;29:1731-6.

  52. Stanley SK, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paxinos O, Carandang G, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Flexion-Extension Response of the Thoracolumbar Spine Under Compressive Follower Preload. Spine, 2004 November 15;29(22):E51-514.

  53. Gavin TM, Carandang G, Havey RM, Flanagan P, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical Analysis of Cervical Orthoses in Flexion and Extension: A Comparison of Cervical Collars and Cervical Thoracic Orthoses. J Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40 (6): 527-538, 2003.

  54. Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Ghanayem A, Havey R, et al. Compressive preload improves the stability of the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cage construct. J Bone Joint Surg (Am), 2003.

  55. Patwardhan A, Havey R, Carandang G, et al. Effect of Compressive Follower Preload on the Flexion-Extension Response of the Human Lumbar Spine. J Orthopaedic Research, 21(3):540-546, 2003.

  56. Teng AL, Pinzur MS, Lomasney L, Mahoney L, Havey R. Functional outcome following anatomic restoration of tarsal-metatarsal fracture dislocation. Foot & Ankle International, 2002 Oct; 23(10): 922-6.

  57. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, Pawelczak SB, Ibrahim KN: A Reliable And Accurate Method of Measuring Orthosis-Wearing Compliance. Spine, 27(2):211-214, 2002.

  58. Pinzur MS, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM: Healing of Partial Flap Necrosis in Ankle Disarticulation Amputation by Debridement and Continued Weight-Bearing. The American Journal of Orthopaedics, pp. 396-397, 2001.

  59. Umehara S, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Vrbos LA, Knight GW, Miyano S, Kirincic M, Kaneda K, Lorenz M: The Biomechanical Effect of Postoperative Hypolordosis in Instrumented Lumbar Fusion on Instrumented and Adjacent Spinal Segments. Spine, 25 (13):1617-1624, 2000.

  60. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ, Diener H, Meade KP, Dunlap, B, Hodges SD: Load Carrying Capacity of the Human Cervical Spine in Compression is Increased Under a Follower Load. Spine, 25 (12):1548-1554, 2000.

  61. Khan T, Havey RM, Sayers ST, Patwardhan AG, King WW: Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injuries. Laboratory Animal Science, 49(2):161-172, 1999.

  62. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Meade KP, Lee B, Dunlap B: A Follower Load Increases the Load Carrying Capacity of the Lumbar Spine in Compression. Spine, 24(10):1003-1009, 1999.

  63. Steinke B, Patwardhan AG, Havey R, King D: Human Growth Hormone Transgene Expression Increases the Biomechanical Structural Properties of Mouse Vertebrae. Spine, 24(1):1-4, 1999.

  64. Katagiri K, Tadano S, Ukai T, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ: Measurement of Intradiscal Pressure Response in Low-Frequency Cyclic Loading. Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 64:2429-2434, 1998.

  65. Pinzur Michael, Wolf Brian, Havey Robert: Walking Pattern of Midfoot and Ankle Disarticulation Amputees. Foot & Ankle International Vol. 18, No. 10, October 1997.

  66. Saban J, Zussman MA, Havey R, Patwardhan AG, Schneider GB, and King D: Heterozygous OIM Mice Exhibit a Mild Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Bone, 19(6):575-579, 1996.

  67. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, and Meade KP: Methodology-Measurements, Part II: Instrumentation and Apparatus. J Prosthetics and Orthotics, 8(2):50-64, 1996.

  68. Slosar P, Patwardhan A, Lorenz M, Havey R, and Sartori M: Instability of the Lumbar Burst Fracture and Limitations of Transpedicular Instrumentation. Spine, 20:1452-1461, 1995.

  69. Li S, Patwardhan A, Amirouche F, Havey R, and K. Meade: Limitations of the Standard Linear Solid Model of Intervertebral Discs Subject to Prolonged Loading and Low-Frequency Vibrations in Axial Compression. J Biomechanics, 28(7):779-790, 1995.

  70. Rabinowitz R, Light T, Havey R, Gourineni P, Patwardhan A, Sartori M, and Vrbos L: The Role of the Interosseous Membrane and Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) in Forearm Stability. J Hand Surgery, 19A (3):385-393, May 1994.

  71. Pinzur MS, Schumacher D, Reddy N, Osterman H, Havey R, and Patwardhan A: Preventing Heel Ulcers: A Comparison of Prophylactic Body-Support Systems. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72:508-510, June 1991.

  72. Pinzur MS, Perona P, Patwardhan AG, and Havey R: Loading of the Contralateral Foot in Peripheral Vascular Insufficiency Below-Knee Amputees. Foot and Ankle, 11(6):368-371, 1991.

  73. Patwardhan AG, Gavin T, Lorenz M, Goel V, Sartori M, and Havey R: Orthotic Stabilization of Thorcolumbar Injuries. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 28:305, 1991.


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