Avinash G. Patwardhan, PhD

Avinash Patwardhan

Contact Information


Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation

Loyola University Chicago

2160 S. First Avenue Maywood, IL 60153


Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital

5000 S. Fifth Avenue

P.O. Box 5000 (151)

Hines, IL 60141


Phone: 630-430-7612

Fax: 708-202-7938

E-mail: apatwar@lumc.edu




Research and Professional Activities








Selected Publications



  1. Goodsitt JE, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Voronov LI, Patwardhan AG. Interpolation of three dimensional kinematics with dual-quaternions. J Biomech. 2017 Jan 25;51:105-110.

  2. Switaj PJ, Fuchs D, Alshouli M, Patwardhan AG, Voronov LI, Muriuki M, Havey RM, Kadakia AR. A biomechanical comparison study of a modern fibular nail and distal fibular locking plate in AO/OTA 44C2 ankle fractures. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016 Sep 15;11(1):100.

  3. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX(®) posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Aug 23;9:285-90.

  4. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Patwardhan AG. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Jul 13;9:223-30.

  5. Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paul GA, Lauryssen C, Coric D, Dimmig T, Musante D. Are Collapsed Cervical Discs Amenable to Total Disc Arthroplasty?: Analysis of Prospective Clinical Data with 2-year Follow-up. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2016 Jul 18 [Epub ahead of print]

  6. Muriuki MG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Zindrick MR, Lorenz MA, Lomasney L, Patwardhan AG. Effects of motion segment level, Pfirrmann intervertebral disc degeneration grade and gender on lumbar spine kinematics, J Orthop Res. 2016 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  7. Smith ZA, Khayatzadeh S, Bakhsheshian J, Harvey M, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Patwardhan AG. Dimensions of the Cervical Neural Foramen in Conditions of Spinal Deformity: An ex vivo Biomechanical Investigation Using Specimen-Specific CT Imaging. Eur Spine J. 2016 Jul;25(7):2155-65.

  8. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG. Stability of the Scoliotic Spine: Effect of Scoliosis Braces. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print].

  9. Patwardhan AG, Khayatzadeh S, Nguyen NL, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Carandang G, Smith ZA, Sears W, Lomasney LM, Ghanayem AJ. Is Cervical Sagittal Imbalance a Risk Factor for Adjacent Segment Pathomechanics After Multilevel Fusion? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Nov 30.

  10. Bakhsheshian J, Khayatzadeh S, Voronov LI, Patwardhan AG, Smith ZA. Unilateral Absence of the Neural Arch in the Subaxial Cervical Spine. Spine J. 2015 Jul 18.

  11. Gudavalli MR, Salsbury SA, Vining RD, Long CR, Corber L, Patwardhan AG, Goertz CM. Development of an attention-touch control for manual cervical distraction: a pilot randomized clinical trial for patients with neck pain. Trials. 2015 Jun 5;16(1):259.

  12. Havey RM, Goodsitt J, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki M, Potluri T, Voronov LI, Lomasney LM, Patwardhan AG. Three-Dimensional CT Based Specimen-Specific Kinematic Model for Ex Vivo Assessment of Lumbar Neuroforaminal Space. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jul 15:40(14); E814-22.

  13. Gudavalli MR, Vining RD, Salsbury SA, Corber LG, Long CR, Patwardhan AG, Goertz CM. Clinician proficiency in delivering manual treatment for neck pain within specified force ranges. Spine J. 2015 Apr 1;15(4):570-6.

  14. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki MG, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Nguyen NL, Ghanayem AJ, Schuit D, Patel AA, Smith ZA, Sears W. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance - A Novel Laboratory Model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jun 1:40(11); 783-92.

  15. Baluch DA, Patel AA, Lullo B, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Nguyen NL, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Physiologic Loads on Cortical and Traditional Pedicle Screw Fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Aug 4. 39(22):E1297-E1302.

  16. Bakhsheshian J, Dahdaleh NS, Patwardhan AG, Smith ZA. Comment on the biomechanical analysis of four- versus six-screw constructs for short-segment pedicle screw and rod instrumentation of unstable thoracolumbar fractures. Spine J. 2014 Aug 1;14(8):1810-1.

  17. Brody M, Patel A, Ghanayem A, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, MD, Vastardis G, Potluri T, Patwardhan A. The Effect of Posterior Decompressive Procedures on Segmental Range of Motion Following Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Sep 1;39(19):1558-63.

  18. Fakurnejad S, Scheer J, Patwardhan A, Havey R, Voronov L, Smith Z. The Biomechanics of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: Methods of Induction and Treatments. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2014 Jun 25. pii: S0967-5868(14)00249-5.

  19. Schiff A, Havey R, Carandang G, Wickman A, Angelico J, Patwardhan A, Pinzur M. Quantification of Shear Stresses Within a Transtibial Prosthetic Socket. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 May 21;35(8):779-782.

  20. Balaram AK, Ghanayem AJ, O'Leary PT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device at the Index Level or Adjacent to Plated Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Jun 1;39(13):E763-9.

  21. Smith Z, Vastardis G, Carandang G, Havey R, Hannon S, Dahdaleh N, Voronov L, Fessler R, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Effects of a Unilateral Approach to Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression. PlosOne. 2014 Mar 21;9(3):e92611.

  22. Voronov L, Vastardis G, Zelenakova J, Carandang G, Havey R, Waldorff E, Zindrick M, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device. International Journal of Spine Surgery. Volume 8, 2014.

  23. Fry R, Alamin T, Voronov L, Fielding L, Ghanayem A, Parikh A, Carandang G, Mcintosh B, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Compressive Preload Reduces Segmental Flexion Instability After Progressive Destabilization of the Lumbar Spine. Spine. 2014 39(2):E74-E81.

  24. Fielding L, Alamin T, Voronov L, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Parametric and cadaveric models of lumbar flexion instability and flexion restricting dynamic stabilization system. European Spine Journal, Epub 2013.

  25. Gudavalli MR, Potluri T, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, Cox J, Rowell R, Kruse R, Joachim G, Patwardhan A, Henderson C, Goertz C. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013.

  26. Wojewnik B, Ghanayem A, Tsitsopoulos P, Voronov L, Potluri T, Havey R, Zelenakova J, Patel A, Carandang G, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device in the Setting of Progressive Flexion-Distraction Injury of the Cervical Spine. Eur Spine J. 2012 Aug 1.

  27. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Wharton ND, Tsitsopoulos PP, Newman P, Carandang G, Voronov LI. Asymmetric Motion Distribution Between Components of a Mobile-Core Lumbar Disc Prosthesis: An Explanation of Unequal Wear Distribution in Explanted CHARITÉ Polyethylene Cores. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 2; 94(9):846-54.

  28. Tsitsopoulos PP, Wojewnik B, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Renner SM, Zelenakova J, McIntosh B, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Prosthesis Endplate Lordosis Angles on L5-S1 Kinematics After Disc Arthroplasty. Eur Spine J. 2012 Jun; 21 Suppl 5:585-91. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

  29. Tsitsopoulos PP, Serhan H, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Would an Anatomically Shaped Lumbar Interbody Cage Provide Better Stability? An In Vitro Cadaveric Biomechanical Evaluation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2012 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]

  30. Robertson PA, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical Investigation of a Novel Integrated Device for Intra-Articular Stabilization of the C1-C2 (Atlantoaxial) Joint. Spine J. 2012 Feb;12(2):136-42. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

  31. Havey RM, Voronov LI, Tsitsopoulos PP, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Lorenz MA, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Relaxation Response of Lumbar Segments Undergoing Disc Space Distraction: Implications to the Stability of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Implants. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print]

  32. Renner SM, Tsitsopoulos PP, Dimitriadis AT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, McIntosh B, Carson C, Ty D, Ringelstein JG, Patwardhan AG. Restoration of spinal alignment and disk mechanics following polyetheretherketone wafer kyphoplasty with StaXx FX. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug;32(7):1295-300.

  33. Martin S, Ghanayem A, Tzermiadianos M, Voronov L, Havey R, Renner S, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Cervical Total Disc Replacement Adjacent to a Two-Level, Straight vs. Lordotic Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Aug 1;36(17):1359-66.

  34. Lee M, Dumonski M, Phillips F, Voronov L, Renner S, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Disc Replacement adjacent to Cervical Fusion: A Biomechanical Comparison of Hybrid Construct vs. Two-Level Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print]

  35. Gocke SP, Rottier FJ, Havey RM, Renner SM, Patwardhan AG, Carandang G. Quantitative Analysis of the Long- and Short-arm Crescentic Shelf Bunionectomy Osteotomies in Fresh Cadaveric Matched Pair Specimens. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011 Mar-Apr;50(2):158-64.

  36. Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Renner SM, Reo ML, Carandang G, Ritter-Lang K, Havey RM. Primary and coupled motions after cervical total disc replacement using a compressible six-degree-of-freedom prosthesis. Eur Spine J. 2010 Sep 24.

  37. Paxinos O, Tsitsopoulos PP, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Lorenz MA, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Evaluation of pullout strength and failure mechanism of posterior instrumentation in normal and osteopenic thoracic vertebrae. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Oct;13(4):469-76.

  38. Gaffey JL, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov ML, Havey RM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Increasing Implant Height on Lumbar Spine Kinematics and Foraminal Size Using the ProDisc-L Prosthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Volume 35(19):pp 1777-82.

  39. Voronov ML, Pinzur MS, Hoffman HH, Havey RM, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Static measure of foot loading. Foot Ankle Spec. 2009 Dec;2(6):267-70.

  40. Nassos JT, Ghanayem AJ, Sasso RC, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Rinella AS, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of segmental occipitoatlantoaxial stabilization techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Dec 1;34(25):2740-4.

  41. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Dooris A, Patwardhan AG. Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Oct 15;34(22):E794-9.

  42. Voronov L, Havey R, Sjovold S, Funk M, Carandang G, Zindrick D, Rosler D, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Total Facet Replacement (TFAS-TL™) with Total Disc Replacement. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 September 3(3):85–90.

  43. Voronov L, Havey R, Rosler D, Sjovold S, Rogers S, Carandang G, Ochoa J, Yuan H, Webb S, Patwardhan AG. L5-S1 Segmental Kinematics after Facet Arthroplasty. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 June 3(2):50-8.

  44. Paxinos O, Ghanayem AJ, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Hadjipavlou A, Patwardhan AG. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a locked plate and wedged graft effectively stabilizes flexion-distraction stage-3 injury in the lower cervical spine: a biomechanical study. Spine 2009 Jan 1;34(1):E9-15.

  45. Tzermiadianos MN, Renner SM, Phillips FM, Hadjipavlou AG, Zindrick MR, Havey RM, Voronov M, Patwardhan AG. Altered disc pressure profile after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a risk factor for adjacent vertebral body fracture. Eur Spine J. 2008 Nov;17(11):1522-30.

  46. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Renner SM, Rosler DM, Ochoa JA, Patwardhan AG. Effect of the Total Facet Arthroplasty System after complete laminectomy-facetectomy on the biomechanics of implanted and adjacent segments. Spine J. 2009 Jan-Feb;9(1):96-102.

  47. Kurtz SM, Patwardhan AG, MacDonald D, Ciccarelli L, van Ooij A, Lorenz M, Zindrick M, O'Leary P, Isaza J, Ross R. What is the correlation of in vivo wear and damage patterns with in vitro TDR motion response? Spine. 2008 Mar 1;33(5):481-9.

  48. Forsythe K, Freedman KB, Stover MD, Patwardhan AG. Comparison of a Novel FiberWire-Button Construct versus Metallic Screw Fixation in a Syndesmotic Injury Model. Foot Ankle Int. 2008 Jan;29(1):49-54.

  49. Bowden AE, Guerin HL, Villarraga ML, Patwardhan AG, Ochoa JA. Quality of motion considerations in numerical analysis of motion restoring implants of the spine. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008 Feb 5.

  50. Tzermiadianos MN, Mekhail A, Voronov LI, Zook J, Havey RM, Renner SM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Enhancing the stability of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a biomechanical comparison of anterior plate versus posterior transpedicular instrumentation. Spine. 2008 Jan 15;33(2):E38-43.

  51. Snyder J, Tzermiadianos M, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Rinella A, Dooris A, Carandang G, Renner S, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Uncovertebral Joint Excision on the Motion Response of the Cervical Spine after Total Disc Replacement", Spine 2007, ec 15;32(26):2965-9.

  52. Serhan H, Varanas G, Dooris A, Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN. Biomechanics of the posterior lumbar articulating elements. Neurosurgery Focus 2007;22(1):E1.

  53. Phillips FM, Voronov LI, Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilizing device (DIAM) after facetectomy and discectomy. Spine J. 2006 Nov-Dec;6(6):714-22.

  54. Cambron JA, Gudavalli MR, Hedeker D, McGregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG, Furner SE. One-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing flexion distraction with an exercise program for chronic low-back pain. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Sep;12(7):659-68.

  55. Fagelman M, Sartori M, Freedman KB, Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Marra G. Biomechanics of coracoacromial arch modification. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007 Jan-Feb;16(1):101-6.

  56. Cambron JA, Gudavalli MR, McGregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG, Furner SE. Amount of health care and self-care following a randomized clinical trial comparing flexion-distraction with exercise program for chronic low back pain. Chiropr Osteopat. 2006 Aug 24;14:19.

  57. Renner SM, Natarajan RN, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Guo BY, Andersson GB, An HS. Novel model to analyze the effect of a large compressive follower pre-load on range of motions in a lumbar spine. J Biomech. 2006 Jul 13.

  58. Goel VK, Panjabi MM, Patwardhan AG, Dooris AP, Serhan H. Test Protocols for Evaluation of Spinal Implants. J Bone Joint Surg 2006;88-A (suppl. 2):103-109.

  59. Callaci JJ, Juknelis D, Patwardhan AG, Wezeman FH. Binge Alcohol Treatment Increases Vertebral Bone Loss Following Ovariectomy: Compensation by Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2006;30 (4):665-672.

  60. Oakey JW, Stover MD, Summers HD, Sartori M, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Does screw configuration affect subtrochanteric fracture after femoral neck fixation? Clin Orthop Rel Res 2006;443:302-6.

  61. Gudavalli MR, Cambron JA, McGregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M, Ghanayem A, Patwardhan AG. A Randomized Clinical Trial and Subgroup Analysis to Compare Flexion-Distraction with Active Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study. Eur Spine J 2005 Dec 8;1-13..

  62. O’Leary P, Lorenz M, Nicolakis M, Voronov L, Zindrick M, Ghanayem A, Havey R, Carandang G, Sartori M, Gaitanis I, Fronczak S, Patwardhan AG. Response of Charité Total Disc Replacement under Physiologic Loads: Prosthesis Component Motion Patterns. Spine J 2005 Nov-Dec;5(6):590-9. Winner 2005 Outstanding Paper Award - North American Spine Society.

  63. Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN. Biomechanics of vertebral body augmentation. Advances in Osteoporotic Fracture Management 2005;4(2):34-39.

  64. King D, Chase J, Havey RM, Voronov L, Sartori M, McEwen HA, Beamer WG, Patwardhan AG. Effects of Growth Hormone Transgene Expression on Vertebrae in a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Spine 2005;30:1491-1495.

  65. Noonan T, Paxinos O, Pinzur MS, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis with a Retrograde Intramedullary Nail: A Biomechanical Analysis of the Effect of Nail Length. Foot and Ankle International 2005; 26 (4):304-308.

  66. Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Magovern B, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Zindrick MR, Hadjipavlou AG, Patwardhan AG. Restoring geometric and loading alignment of the thoracic spine with a vertebral compression fracture: effects of balloon (bone tamp) inflation and spinal extension. Spine J 2005;5(1):45-54.

  67. Dooris A, Voronov L, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. The Effect of Fixed Center of Rotation Disc Implantation on Motion Segment Load Sharing: A Pilot Study. Roundtables in Spine Surgery. Spine Biomechanics, 2005; 1(1):31-37.

  68. Gaitanis IN, Hadjipavlou AG, Katonis PG, Kontakis GM, Tzermiadianos MN, Saper LM, Patwardhan AG. Balloon Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Pathological Vertebral Compressive Fractures. European Spine Journal, 2004 October 8 (Epub).

  69. Stanley SK, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paxinos O, Carandang G, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Flexion-Extension Response of the Thoracolumbar Spine Under Compressive Follower Preload. Spine, 2004 November 15;29(22):E510-514.

  70. Phillips FM, Cunningham B, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Supplemental Translaminar Facet Screw Fixation on the Stability of Stand-Alone ALIF Cages Under Physiologic Loads. Spine, 2004;29:1731-6.

  71. Callaci JJ, Juknelis D, Patwardhan AG, Sartori M, Frost N, Wezeman FH. The Effects of Binge Alcohol Exposure on Bone Resorption and Biomechanical and Structural Properties are Offset by Concurrent Bisphosphonate Treatment. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28 (1):182-191, 2004.

  72. Gavin TM, Carandang G, Havey RM, Flanagan P, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical Analysis of Cervical Orthoses in Flexion and Extension: A Comparison of Cervical Collars and Cervical Thoracic Orthoses. J Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40 (6): 527-538, 2003.

  73. Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Ghanayem A, Havey RM, Cunningham B, Voronov LI, Phillips FM. Compressive preload improves the stability of the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cage construct. J Bone Joint Surg (Am), 85-A:1749-1756, 2003.

  74. Patwardhan AG, Havey R, Carandang G, Simonds J, Voronov Li, Ghanayem AJ, Meade KP, Gavin TM, Paxinos O. Effect of Compressive Follower Preload on the Flexion-Extension Response of the Human Lumbar Spine. J Orthopaedic Research, 21(3):540-546, 2003.

  75. Patwardhan AG, Ghanayem A, Simonds J, Hodges S, Voronov L, Paxinos O, Havey R. An Experimental Model of Adult-Onset Slip Progression in Isthmic Spondylolisthesis. Stud Health Technol Inform, 2002;91:322-4.

  76. Natarajan RN, Andersson GBJ, Patwardhan AG, Verma S. Effect of Annular Incision Type on the Change in Biomechanical Properties in a Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc. J Biomechanical Engineering, 124:229-236, 2002.

  77. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, Pawelczak SB, Ibrahim KN. A Reliable and Accurate Method of Measuring Orthosis-Wearing Compliance. Spine, 27(2):211-214, 2002.

  78. Buranosky DJ, Taylor DT, Sage RA, Sartori M, Patwardhan AG, Phelan M, Lam AT. First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis: Quantitative Mechanical Testing of Six-Hole Dorsal Plate Versus Crossed Screw Fixation in Cadaveric Specimens. J Foot and Ankle Surgery, 40(4):208-213, 2001.

  79. Patwardhan AG, Lee B, Meade KP. Frontal Plane Response of the Lumbar Spine Subjected to a Follower Load – Role of Muscles. J. Biomechanical Engineering, 123:212-217, 2001.

  80. Pinzur MS, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM. Healing of Partial Flap Necrosis in Ankle Disarticulation Amputation by Debridement and Continued Weight-Bearing. The American Journal of Orthopaedics, pp. 396-397, 2001.

  81. Humphreys SC, Hodges SD, Patwardhan AG, Eck JC, Murphy RB, Covington LA. Comparison of Posterior and Transforaminal Approaches in Performing Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Spine, 26(5):567-71, 2001.

  82. Zindrick MR, Knight GW, Sartori MJ, Carnevale TJ, Patwardhan AG, Lorenz MA. Pedicle Morphology of the Immature Thoracolumbar Spine. Spine, 25 (21):2726-2735, 2000.

  83. Umehara S, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Vrbos LA, Knight GW, Miyano S, Kirincic M, Kaneda K, Lorenz M. The Biomechanical Effect of Postoperative Hypolordosis in Instrumented Lumbar Fusion on Instrumented and Adjacent Spinal Segments. Spine, 25 (13):1617-1624, 2000.

  84. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ, Diener H, Meade KP, Dunlap, B, Hodges SD. Load Carrying Capacity of the Human Cervical Spine in Compression is Increased Under a Follower Load. Spine, 25 (12):1548-1554, 2000.

  85. Patwardhan AG, Parnianpour M, Meade KP, Rizza R, Li S. Effect of Spinal Musculature on the Mechanics of the Lumbar Spine. Biomedical Engineering-Applications, Basis & Communications, 11:249-258, 1999.

  86. Lim TH, Patwardhan AG, Hong JH, An HS, Riley LH, Hodges S, Zindrick MR. Effect of Instrumented Lumbar Fusion on the Flexibility and Viscoelastic Properties of the Adjacent Segment: An In Vivo Canine Study. J. Musculoskeletal Research 3(2):125-136, 1999.

  87. Natarajan RN, Andersson GBJ, Patwardhan AG, Andriacchi TP. Study on the Effect of Graded Facetectomy on Change in Lumbar Motion Segment Torsional Flexibility Using Three Dimensional Continuum Contact Representation for Facet Joints. J Biomechanical Engineering, 121:215-221, 1999.

  88. Khan T, Havey RM, Sayers ST, Patwardhan AG, King WW. Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injuries. Laboratory Animal Science, 49(2):161-172, 1999.

  89. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Meade KP, Lee B, Dunlap B. A Follower Load Increases the Load Carrying Capacity of the Lumbar Spine in Compression. Spine, 24(10):1003-1009, 1999.

  90. Steinke B, Patwardhan AG, Havey R, King D. Human Growth Hormone Transgene Expression Increases the Biomechanical Structural Properties of Mouse Vertebrae. Spine, 24(1):1-4, 1999.

  91. Payette CR, Sage RA, Gonzalez JV, Sartori M, Patwardhan AG, Vrbos L. Triple Arthrodesis Stabilization: A Quantitative Analysis of Screw Versus Staple Fixation in Fresh Cadaveric Matched-Pair Specimens. J Foot and Ankle Surgery, 37(6):472-480, 1998.

  92. Katagiri K, Tadano S, Ukai T, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ. Measurement of Intradiscal Pressure Response in Low-Frequency Cyclic Loading. Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 64:2429-2434, 1998.

  93. Humphreys SC, Chase J, Patwardhan AG, Shuster J, Lomasney L, Hodges S. Flexion and Traction Effect on C5-C6 Foraminal Space. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79:1105-1109, 1998.

  94. Humphreys SC, Hodges S, Patwardhan AG, Eck JC, Shepard LC, Sartori M. The Natural History of the Cervical Foramen in Both Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals as Measured by MRI. Spine, 23:2180-2184, 1998.

  95. Wang JL, Parnianpour M, Shirazi-Adl A, Engin AE, Li S, Patwardhan AG. Development and Validation of a Viscoelastic Finite Element Model of an L2/L3 Motion Segment. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 28:81-93, 1997.

  96. Andreshak JL, Rabin SI, Patwardhan AG, and Wezeman FH. Tibial Segmental Defect Repair: Chondrogenesis and Biomechanical Strength Modulated by Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor. Anatomical Record, 248:198-204, 1997.

  97. Saban J, Zussman MA, Havey R, Patwardhan AG, Schneider GB, and King D. Heterozygous OIM Mice Exhibit a Mild Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Bone, 19(6):575-579, 1996.

  98. Patwardhan AG, Gavin TM, Bunch WH, Dvonch VM, Vanderby R, Meade KP, and Sartori M. A Biomechanical Comparison of the Milwaukee Brace (CTLSO) and the TLSO for the Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. J Prosthetics and Orthotics, 8(4):115-122, 1996.

  99. Patwardhan AG, Rimkus A, Gavin TM, Bueche M, Meade KP, Bielski R, and Ibrahim K. Geometric Analysis of Coronal Decompensation in Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine, 21(10):1192-1200, 1996.

  100. Havey RM, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, and Meade KP. Methodology-Measurements, Part II: Instrumentation and Apparatus. J Prosthetics and Orthotics, 8(2):50-64, 1996.

  101. Pinzur MS, Cox W, Kaiser J, Morris T, Patwardhan AG, and Vrbos L. The Effect of Prosthetic Alignment on Relative Limb Loading in Persons with Trans-tibial Amputation: A Preliminary Report. J Rehabilitation Research and Development, 32(4):373-378, 1995.

  102. Slosar P, Patwardhan AG, Lorenz M, Havey R, and Sartori M. Instability of the Lumbar Burst Fracture and Limitations of Transpedicular Instrumentation. Spine, 20:1452-1461, 1995.

  103. Li S, Patwardhan AG, Amirouche F, Havey R, and K. Meade. Limitations of the Standard Linear Solid Model of Intervertebral Discs Subject to Prolonged Loading and Low-Frequency Vibrations in Axial Compression. J Biomechanics, 28(7):779-790, 1995.

  104. Miller JM, Stuck R, Sartori M, Patwardhan AG, Cane R, Vrbos L. The Inverted Z Bunionectomy: Quantitative Analysis of the Scarf and Inverted Scarf Bunionectomy Osteotomies in Fresh Cadaveric Matched Pair Specimens. J Foot and Ankle Surgery, 33(5):455-462, 1994.

  105. Amirouche FML, Xie M, Patwardhan AG. Optimization of the Contact Damping and Stiffness Coefficients to Minimize Human Body Vibration. J Biomechanical Engineering, 116(4):413-420, 1994.

  106. Rabinowitz R, Light T, Havey R, Gourineni P, Patwardhan AG, Sartori M, Vrbos L. The Role of the Interosseous Membrane and Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) in Forearm Stability. J Hand Surgery, 19A (3):385-393, May 1994.

  107. Hsu ES, Patwardhan AG, Meade KP, Light TR, Martin WR. Cross-Sectional Geometrical Properties and Bone Mineral Contents of the Human Radius and Ulna. J Biomechanics, 26(11):1307-1318, 1993.

  108. Pinzur MS, Smith D, Tornow D, Meade K, Patwardhan AG. Gait Analysis of Dysvascular Below-Knee and Contralateral Through-Knee Bilateral Amputees: A Preliminary Report. Orthopedics, 16(8):875-879, 1993.

  109. Gavin TM, Boscardin JB, Patwardhan AG, Bunch WH, Zindrick MR, Lorenz MA, Vrbos LA. Preliminary Results of Orthotic Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain. J Prosthetics and Orthotics, 5(1):25-29, 1993.

  110. Perona PG, Lawrence J, Paprosky WG, Patwardhan AG, Sartori M, Morales SD. Acetabular Micromotion as a Measure of Initial Implant Stability in Primary Hip Arthroplasty. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Methods of Initial Acetabular Component Fixation. J Arthroplasty, 7(4):537-547, 1992.

  111. Chang H, Gilbertson LG, Goel VK, Winterbottom JM, Clark CR, Patwardhan AG. Dynamic Response of the Occipito-Atlanto-Axial (C0-C1-C2) Complex in Axial Rotation. J Orthopaedic Research, 10(3):446-453, May 1992.

  112. Pinzur MS, Schumacher D, Reddy N, Osterman H, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Preventing Heel Ulcers: A Comparison of Prophylactic Body-Support Systems. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72:508-510, June 1991.

  113. Pinzur MS, Perona P, Patwardhan AG, Havey R. Loading of the Contralateral Foot in Peripheral Vascular Insufficiency Below-Knee Amputees. Foot and Ankle, 11(6):368-371, 1991.

  114. Patwardhan AG, Li S, Gavin TM, Lorenz MA, Meade KP, Zindrick M. Orthotic Stabilization of Thoracolumbar Injuries. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Jewett Hyperextension Orthosis. Spine, 15(7): 654-661, July 1990.

  115. Apel DM, Patwardhan AG, Pinzur, MS, Dobozi WR. Axial Loading Studies of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Femur. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 246:156-164, September 1989.

  116. Blevens AD, Light TR, Jablonsky WS, Smith DG, Patwardhan AG, Guay ME, Woo TS. Radiocarpal Articular Contact Characteristics with Scaphoid Instability. J Hand Surgery, 14A:781-790, September 1989.

  117. Stuck RM, Moore JW, Patwardhan AG, Sartori MJ. Forces Under the Hallux Rigidus Foot with Surgical and Orthotic Intervention. J American Podiatric Medical Association, 78(9):465-468, 1988.

  118. Meade KP, Bunch WH, Vanderby R, Patwardhan AG, Knight GW. Progression of Unsupported Curves in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine, 12(6):520-526, 1987.

  119. Hitchcock T, Light T, Bunch WH, Knight GW, Sartori M, Patwardhan AG, Hollyfield R. Effect of Immediate Controlled Digital Motion on the Strength of Flexor Tendon Repairs. J Hand Surgery, Vol 12A, No.4, pp. 590-595, 1987.

  120. Zindrick MR, Wiltse LL, Doornik A, Widell EH, Knight GW, Patwardhan AG, Thomas JC. Analysis of the Morphometric Characteristics of the Thoracolumbar Pedicles. Spine, 12(2):160-166, 1987.

  121. Vanderby R, Daniele M, Patwardhan AG, Bunch WH. A Method for Identification of In Vivo Segmental Stiffness Properties of the Spine. J Biomechanical Engineering, Vol 108, pp. 312-316, November 1986.

  122. Patwardhan AG, Bunch WH, Meade KP, Vanderby R, Knight GW. A Biomechanical Analog of Curve Progression and Orthotic Stabilization in Idiopathic Scoliosis. J Biomechanics, 19(2):103-117, 1986.

  123. Bunch WH, Patwardhan AG, Dvonch VM. A Mechanism of Action of Spinal Orthoses. J Association of Children's Prosthetic-Orthotic Clinics, 18(5): 7-10, Winter 1983.

  124. Vanderby R, Patwardhan AG. Computers in Rehabilitative Biomechanics. Association of Computing Machinery SigCAPH Quarterly, Number 3; pp 16-26, Winter 1983.

  125. Lorenz M, Patwardhan AG, Vanderby R. Load Bearing Characteristics of Lumbar Facets in Normal and Surgically Altered Spinal Segments. Spine, 8:122-130, 1983. Volvo Award.

  126. Patwardhan AG, Soni AH, Sullivan JA, Gudavalli MR, Srinivasan V. Kinematic Analysis and Simulation of Vertebral Motion Under Static Load- Part II: Simulation Study. J Biomechanical Engineering, 104:112-118, May 1982.

  127. Soni AH, Sullivan JA, Patwardhan AG, Gudavalli MR, Chitwood J. Kinematic Analysis and Simulation of Vertebral Motion Under Static Load- Part I: Kinematic Analysis. J Biomechanical Engineering, 104: 105-111, May 1982.

  128. Patwardhan AG, Soni AH. Motion Simulation of an Articulated Robotic Arm Subjected to Static Forces. J Mechanical Design, 104: 494-503, 1982.

  129. Patwardhan AG, Soni A, Sullivan J. A General Method to Locate a Body in 3-D Space using X-ray Exposure in Two Oblique Planes. Mechanisms and Machine Theory, 16:459-461, 1981.

  130. Patwardhan AG, Soni AH, Sullivan JA. Technology Transfer in Biokinematics of the Human Spine. J Mechanical Design, 101: 594-603, October 1979.

  131. Patwardhan AG, Soni AH. Synthesis of a Planar Four-Bar Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Elastic Links. ASME Paper No. 76-DET-73, 1976.



  1. Patwardhan A, Havey R, Voronov L: Biomechanical testing of the Lumbar Spine. In: Kim DH, Sengupta DK, Camissa FP, Yoon DH, Fessler RG, 2nd edition, Dynamic Reconstruction of the Spine, Chapter 7, pp 54-60. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 2015.

  2. Zindrick M, Lorenz M, Voronov L, Tzermiadianos M, Hadjipavlou A: Clinical Factors that May Affect Outcome in Lumbar Total Disc Replacement. What Is the Evidence? In: Szpalski M, Gunzburg R, Rydevik B, Le Huec JC, Mayer HM (Eds.), Surgery for Low Back Pain, Chapter 5.2, pp 183-191. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

  3. Patwardhan AG, Gaitains I, Voronov LI: Biomechanics of the Spine. In Spivak JM and Connolly PJ, Eds., Orthopaedic Knowledge Update- Spine 3, Chapter 3, pp. 25-34, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2006.

  4. Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, Ghanayem A and Rinella A: Spinal Orthotics. In Lusardi and Nielson Eds. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation; 2nd Edition, Chapter 85 Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers, Newton, Massachusetts. 2005.

  5. Gavin TM, Bunch WH, Patwardhan AG, Meade KP and Shurr DG: Orthotic Treatment for Spinal Disorders. In Weinstein SL, Ed., The Pediatric Spine, 2nd Edition, Chapter 52. Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins. pp. 895-919. Baltimore, Maryland. 2001.

  6. Flanagan PF, Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, Gavin DQ: Spinal Orthoses. Chapter 14, In Lusardi and Nielson Eds. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers, Newton, Massachusetts, June 2000.

  7. Gavin TM, Patwardhan AG, Levine PD, Gavin DQ, Fenwick L: Principles and Components of Spinal Orthoses. in Atlas of Orthotics , C.V. Mosby, pp. 155-194, 1997.

  8. Lorenz M and Patwardhan AG: The Three-Joint Complex. in The Lumbar Spine, Second edition, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Vol. 1, pp. 52-57, 1996.

  9. Gavin TM, Shurr DG, Patwardhan AG: Orthotic Treatment for Spinal Disorders. in Pediatric Spine, S. Weinstein, Ed., Ravin Press, Vol. 2, pp. 1795-1828, 1994.

  10. Patwardhan AG, Gavin TM, Slosar PJ, and Lorenz MA: Biomechanics of Implants and Orthoses for Thoracolumbar Injuries. in Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley and Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 261-280, 1993.

  11. Patwardhan AG, Bunch WH, Dvonch VM, Gavin TM, and Goel V: Biomechanics of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis- Natural History and Treatment. in Biomechanics of the Spine- Clinical and Surgical Perspective, V.K. Goel and J.N. Weinstein, Eds., CRC Press, pp. 251-285, 1990.

  12. Goel V, Weinstein J, and Patwardhan AG: Biomechanics of Intact Ligamentous Spine. in Biomechanics of the Spine- Clinical and Surgical Perspective, V.K. Goel and J.N. Weinstein, Eds., CRC Press, pp. 97-156, 1990.

  13. Lorenz M, Patwardhan AG, and Zindrick M: Instability and Mechanics of Implants and Braces for Thoracic and Lumbar Fractures. in Spinal Trauma, T. Erico, Ed., J. B. Lippincott and Co., pp. 271-280, 1990.

  14. Vanderby R, Patwardhan AG, Meade KP, and Bunch WH: Spinal Stability in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. in Computational Methods in Bioengineering, R. L. Spilker and B. R. Simon, Eds., pp. 411-425, 1988.

  15. Patwardhan AG, Vanderby R, Knight GW, Gogan W, Levine P: Biomechanics of the Spine. Chapter 7. Atlas of Orthotics - Biomechanical Principles and Application, The C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1985, pp 139-150.


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