Leonard I. Voronov, MD, PhD

Leonard Voronov

Contact Information


Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation

Loyola University Chicago

2160 S. First Avenue Maywood, IL 60153


Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital

5000 S. Fifth Avenue

P.O. Box 5000 (151)

Hines, IL 60141


Phone: 708-202-5802

Fax: 708-202-7938

E-mail: LVoronov@hotmail.com




Research and Professional Activities








Selected Publications



  1. Goodsitt JE, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Voronov LI, Patwardhan AG. Interpolation of three dimensional kinematics with dual-quaternions. J Biomech. 2017 Jan 25;51:105-110.

  2. Switaj PJ, Fuchs D, Alshouli M, Patwardhan AG, Voronov LI, Muriuki M, Havey RM, Kadakia AR. A biomechanical comparison study of a modern fibular nail and distal fibular locking plate in AO/OTA 44C2 ankle fractures. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016 Sep 15;11(1):100.

  3. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX(®) posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Aug 23;9:285-90.

  4. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Patwardhan AG. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Med Devices (Auckl). 2016 Jul 13;9:223-30.

  5. Patwardhan AG, Carandang G, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paul GA, Lauryssen C, Coric D, Dimmig T, Musante D. Are Collapsed Cervical Discs Amenable to Total Disc Arthroplasty?: Analysis of Prospective Clinical Data with 2-year Follow-up. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2016 Jul 18 [Epub ahead of print]

  6. Muriuki MG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Zindrick MR, Lorenz MA, Lomasney L, Patwardhan AG. Effects of motion segment level, Pfirrmann intervertebral disc degeneration grade and gender on lumbar spine kinematics, J Orthop Res. 2016 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  7. Smith ZA, Khayatzadeh S, Bakhsheshian J, Harvey M, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Patwardhan AG. Dimensions of the Cervical Neural Foramen in Conditions of Spinal Deformity: An ex vivo Biomechanical Investigation Using Specimen-Specific CT Imaging. Eur Spine J. 2016 Jul;25(7):2155-65.

  8. Patwardhan AG, Khayatzadeh S, Nguyen NL, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Muriuki MG, Carandang G, Smith ZA, Sears W, Lomasney LM, Ghanayem AJ. Is Cervical Sagittal Imbalance a Risk Factor for Adjacent Segment Pathomechanics After Multilevel Fusion? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Nov 30.

  9. Bakhsheshian J, Khayatzadeh S, Voronov LI, Patwardhan AG, Smith ZA. Unilateral Absence of the Neural Arch in the Subaxial Cervical Spine. Spine J. 2015 Jul 18.

  10. Havey RM, Goodsitt J, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki M, Potluri T, Voronov LI, Lomasney LM, Patwardhan AG. Three-Dimensional CT Based Specimen-Specific Kinematic Model for Ex Vivo Assessment of Lumbar Neuroforaminal Space. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jul 15:40(14); E814-22.

  11. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki MG, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Nguyen NL, Ghanayem AJ, Schuit D, Patel AA, Smith ZA, Sears W. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance - A Novel Laboratory Model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jun 1:40(11); 783-92.

  12. Baluch DA, Patel AA, Lullo B, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Nguyen NL, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Physiologic Loads on Cortical and Traditional Pedicle Screw Fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Aug 4. 39(22):E1297-E1302.

  13. Brody M, Patel A, Ghanayem A, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, MD, Vastardis G, Potluri T, Patwardhan A. The Effect of Posterior Decompressive Procedures on Segmental Range of Motion Following Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Sep 1;39(19):1558-63.

  14. Fakurnejad S, Scheer J, Patwardhan A, Havey R, Voronov L, Smith Z. The Biomechanics of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: Methods of Induction and Treatments. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2014 Jun 25. pii: S0967-5868(14)00249-5.

  15. Balaram AK, Ghanayem AJ, O'Leary PT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device at the Index Level or Adjacent to Plated Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Jun 1;39(13):E763-9.

  16. Smith Z, Vastardis G, Carandang G, Havey R, Hannon S, Dahdaleh N, Voronov L, Fessler R, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Effects of a Unilateral Approach to Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression. PlosOne. 2014 Mar 21;9(3):e92611.

  17. Voronov L, Vastardis G, Zelenakova J, Carandang G, Havey R, Waldorff E, Zindrick M, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device. International Journal of Spine Surgery. Volume 8, 2014.

  18. Fry R, Alamin T, Voronov L, Fielding L, Ghanayem A, Parikh A, Carandang G, Mcintosh B, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Compressive Preload Reduces Segmental Flexion Instability After Progressive Destabilization of the Lumbar Spine. Spine. 2014 39(2):E74-E81.

  19. Fielding L, Alamin T, Voronov L, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan A. Parametric and cadaveric models of lumbar flexion instability and flexion restricting dynamic stabilization system. European Spine Journal, Epub 2013.

  20. Gudavalli MR, Potluri T, Carandang G, Havey R, Voronov L, Cox J, Rowell R, Kruse R, Joachim G, Patwardhan A, Henderson C, Goertz C. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013.

  21. Wojewnik B, Ghanayem A, Tsitsopoulos P, Voronov L, Potluri T, Havey R, Zelenakova J, Patel A, Carandang G, Patwardhan A. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Low Profile, Anchored Cervical Interbody Spacer Device in the Setting of Progressive Flexion-Distraction Injury of the Cervical Spine. Eur Spine J. 2012 Aug 1.

  22. Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Wharton ND, Tsitsopoulos PP, Newman P, Carandang G, Voronov LI. Asymmetric Motion Distribution Between Components of a Mobile-Core Lumbar Disc Prosthesis: An Explanation of Unequal Wear Distribution in Explanted CHARITÉ Polyethylene Cores. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 2; 94(9):846-54.

  23. Tsitsopoulos PP, Wojewnik B, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Renner SM, Zelenakova J, McIntosh B, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Prosthesis Endplate Lordosis Angles on L5-S1 Kinematics After Disc Arthroplasty. Eur Spine J. 2012 Jun; 21 Suppl 5:585-91. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

  24. Tsitsopoulos PP, Serhan H, Voronov LI, Carandang G, Havey RM, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Would an Anatomically Shaped Lumbar Interbody Cage Provide Better Stability? An In Vitro Cadaveric Biomechanical Evaluation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2012 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]

  25. Robertson PA, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical Investigation of a Novel Integrated Device for Intra-Articular Stabilization of the C1-C2 (Atlantoaxial) Joint. Spine J. 2012 Feb;12(2):136-42. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

  26. Havey RM, Voronov LI, Tsitsopoulos PP, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Lorenz MA, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Relaxation Response of Lumbar Segments Undergoing Disc Space Distraction: Implications to the Stability of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Implants. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print].

  27. Renner SM, Tsitsopoulos PP, Dimitriadis AT, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, McIntosh B, Carson C, Ty D, Ringelstein JG, Patwardhan AG. Restoration of spinal alignment and disk mechanics following polyetheretherketone wafer kyphoplasty with StaXx FX. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug;32(7):1295-300.

  28. Lee M, Dumonski M, Phillips F, Voronov L, Renner S, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Disc Replacement adjacent to Cervical Fusion: A Biomechanical Comparison of Hybrid Construct vs. Two-Level Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print].

  29. Martin S, Ghanayem A, Tzermiadianos M, Voronov L, Havey R, Renner S, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Cervical Total Disc Replacement Adjacent to a Two-Level, Straight vs. Lordotic Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Aug 1;36(17):1359-66.

  30. Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Renner SM, Reo ML, Carandang G, Ritter-Lang K, Havey RM. Primary and coupled motions after cervical total disc replacement using a compressible six-degree-of-freedom prosthesis. Eur Spine J. 2010 Sep 24.

  31. Paxinos O, Tsitsopoulos PP, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Lorenz MA, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Evaluation of pullout strength and failure mechanism of posterior instrumentation in normal and osteopenic thoracic vertebrae. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Oct;13(4):469-76.

  32. Patwardhan AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Tsitsopoulos PP, Voronov LI, Renner SM, Reo ML, Carandang G, Ritter-Lang K, Havey RM. Primary and coupled motions after cervical total disc replacement using a compressible six-degree-of-freedom prosthesis. Eur Spine J. 2010 Sep 24.

  33. Nassos JT, Ghanayem AJ, Sasso RC, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Rinella AS, Carandang G, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical evaluation of segmental occipitoatlantoaxial stabilization techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Dec 1;34(25):2740-4.

  34. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Dooris A, Patwardhan AG. Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Oct 15;34(22):E794-9.

  35. Voronov L, Havey R, Sjovold S, Funk M, Carandang G, Zindrick D, Rosler D, Patwardhan AG. Kinematics of Total Facet Replacement (TFAS-TL™) with Total Disc Replacement. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 September 3(3):85–90.

  36. Voronov L, Havey R, Rosler D, Sjovold S, Rogers S, Carandang G, Ochoa J, Yuan H, Webb S, Patwardhan AG. L5-S1 Segmental Kinematics after Facet Arthroplasty. Spine Arthroplasty Society Journal 2009 June 3(2):50-8.

  37. Paxinos O, Ghanayem AJ, Zindrick MR, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Hadjipavlou A, Patwardhan AG. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a locked plate and wedged graft effectively stabilizes flexion-distraction stage-3 injury in the lower cervical spine: a biomechanical study. Spine. 2009 Jan 1;34(1):E9-15.

  38. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Renner SM, Rosler DM, Ochoa JA, Patwardhan AG. Effect of the Total Facet Arthroplasty System after complete laminectomy-facetectomy on the biomechanics of implanted and adjacent segments. Spine J. 2009 Jan;9(1):96-102.

  39. Zindrick MR, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Lorenz M, Hadjipavlou A. An evidence-based medicine approach in determining factors that may affect outcome in lumbar total disc replacement. Spine. 2008 May 15;33(11):1262-9.

  40. Tzermiadianos MN, Mekhail A, Voronov LI, Zook J, Havey RM, Renner SM, Carandang G, Abjornson C, Patwardhan AG. Enhancing the stability of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a biomechanical comparison of anterior plate versus posterior transpedicular instrumentation. Spine. 2008 Jan 15;33(2):E38-43.

  41. Snyder J, Tzermiadianos M, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Rinella A, Dooris A, Carandang G, Renner S, Havey R, Patwardhan AG. Effect of Uncovertebral Joint Excision on the Motion Response of the Cervical Spine after Total Disc Replacement", Spine 2007 Dec 15;32(26):2965-9.

  42. Phillips FM, Voronov LI, Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilizing device (DIAM) after facetectomy and discectomy. Spine J. 2006 Nov-Dec;6(6):714-22.

  43. Renner SM, Natarajan RN, Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Guo BY, Andersson GB, An HS. Novel model to analyze the effect of a large compressive follower pre-load on range of motions in a lumbar spine. J Biomech. 2006 Jul 13.

  44. O’Leary P, Lorenz M, Nicolakis M, Voronov L, Zindrick M, Ghanayem A, Havey R, Carandang G, Sartori M, Gaitanis I, Fronczak S, Patwardhan A. Response of Charité Total Disc Replacement under Physiologic Loads: Prosthesis Component Motion Patterns. Spine J 2005 Nov-Dec;5(6):590-9. Winner 2005 Outstanding Paper Award - North American Spine Society.

  45. King D, Chase J, Havey R, Voronov L, Sartori M, McEwen H, Beamer W, Patwardhan A. Effects of Growth Hormone Transgene Expression on Vertebrae in a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Spine, 2005, Jul 1;30(13):1491-5.

  46. Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Phillips FM, Magovern B, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Zindrick MR, Hadjipavlou AG, Patwardhan AG. Restoring geometric and loading alignment of the thoracic spine with a vertebral compression fracture: effects of balloon (bone tamp) inflation and spinal extension. Spine J. 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):45-54.

  47. Dooris A, Voronov L, Havey R, Patwardhan A. The Effect of Fixed Center of Rotation Disc Implantation on Motion Segment Load Sharing: A Pilot Study. Roundtables in Spine Surgery. Spine Biomechanics, 2005;1(1):31-7.

  48. Stanley SK, Ghanayem AJ, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Paxinos O, Carandang G, Zindrick MR, Patwardhan AG. Flexion-Extension Response of the Thoracolumbar Spine Under Compressive Follower Preload. Spine, 2004 November 15;29(22):E51-514.

  49. Phillips F, Patwardhan AG, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G. Effect of Supplemental Translaminar Facet Screw Fixation on the Stability of Stand-Alone ALIF Cages Under Physiologic Compressive Preloads. Spine, 2004 August 15;29(16):1731-6.

  50. Patwardhan A, Carandang G, Ghanayem A, Havey R, Cunningham B, Voronov L, Phillips F. Compressive Preload Improves the Stability of the Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Constructs. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2003 September;85-A(9):1749-56.

  51. Patwardhan A, Havey R, Carandang G, Simonds J, Voronov L, Ghanayem A, Meade K, Gavin T, Paxinos O. Effect of Compressive Follower Preload on the Flexion-Extension Response of the Human Lumbar Spine. J. Orthopaedic Research, 2003 May;21(3):540-6.

  52. Patwardhan A, Ghanayem A, Simonds J, Hodges S, Voronov L, Paxinos O, Havey R. An experimental model of adult-onset slip progression in isthmic spondylolisthesis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:322-4.

  53. Kuzin M, Shkrob O, Vetshev P, Belichenko O, Sinitsin V, Kuznetsov N, Ippolitov I, Voronov L, Yagelsky V. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic methods in thymus diseases. Khirurgia 1993;5:3-9.

  54. Kuzin M, Shkrob O, Gekht B, Vetshev P, Zairatiants O, Kuznetsov N, Chilingaridi K, Ippolitov I, Voronov L, Kurochkin A. Diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis in patients with generalized myasthenia. Khirurgia 1993;4:11-20.

  55. Vetshev P, Voronov L, Sokolov A. Diagnosis of lesions of the thymus gland in generalized myasthenia gravis. Khirurgia 1991;10:143-148.

  56. Kuzin M, Shkrob O, Belichenko O, Kulakova A, Vetshev P, Kuznetsov N, Murza L, Voronov L. Magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of surgical diseases. Khirurgia 1991;9:103-113.

  57. Shkrob O, Vetshev P, Ippolitov I, Khodzhaev Z, Voronov L. Residual thymus gland in patients operated for myasthenia. Khirurgia 1991;2:117-121.

  58. Zairatiants O, Vetshev P, Popova I, Ippolitov I, Voronov L. Cortical-cell thymomas with predominance of so-called nurse-cells in patients with myasthenia. Arkhive Pathologii 1991;53(1):15-20.

  59. Shkrob O, Vetshev P, Sokolov A, Shagal D, Ippolitov I, Voronov L, Khodzhaev Z. Tactical and technical errors in surgical treatment of patients with generalized myasthenia. Khirurgia 1991,1:113-20.

  60. Kuzin N, Rustamov G, Zavodnov V, Voronov L. Blood flow and functional status of the mucosa before and after vagotomy. Vestnik Khirurgii Imeni I.I.Grekova 1990;6:145-149.

  61. Kuznetsov V, Trubcheninova L, Derevnina N, Veskova T, Ivshina A, Tabagari D, Krumm A, Ozherelyev A, Voronov L. Immune homeostasis disturbances in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Voprocy Oncologii 1988;6:673-682.



  1. Patwardhan A, Havey R, Voronov L: Biomechanical testing of the Lumbar Spine. In: Kim DH, Sengupta DK, Camissa FP, Yoon DH, Fessler RG, 2nd edition, Dynamic Reconstruction of the Spine, Chapter 7, pp 54-60. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 2015.

  2. Zindrick M, Lorenz M, Voronov L, Tzermiadianos M, Hadjipavlou A: Clinical Factors that May Affect Outcome in Lumbar Total Disc Replacement. What Is the Evidence? In: Szpalski M, Gunzburg R, Rydevik B, Le Huec JC, Mayer HM (Eds.), Surgery for Low Back Pain, Chapter 5.2, pp 183-191. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

  3. Patwardhan AG, Gaitains I, Voronov LI: Biomechanics of the Spine. In Spivak JM and Connolly PJ, Eds., Orthopaedic Knowledge Update- Spine 3, Chapter 3, pp. 25-34, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2006. Co-Author.


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